Before creating your training program, it is important that you do your homework and research your company’s needs thoroughly. By gathering information in several key areas, you will be better prepared to create a relevant customized training plan for your company.
- Objective 1: Determine what training is needed.
- Objective 2: Determine who needs to be trained.
- Objective 3: Know how best to train adult learners.
- Objective 4: Know who your audience is.
- Objective 5: Draw up a detailed blueprint.
Determine Training Needs
- Company goals. Refer to your company’s stated goals to help you define overall training program goals. Align your training objectives with company goals in such a way that when the workforce meets your objectives, they will also be meeting the company’s goals. This process starts with new employee orientation training.
- Job descriptions. Include stated job requirements as your base for needed training.
- OSHA 300 log. Review this document to identify specific safety needs in your company. Use these injury statistics to identify areas where more safety training is needed.
- HR complaints. Review employee complaints to prioritize training on discrimination, harassment, overtime versus compensation time, and other employee issues.
- Legal obligations. You must ensure that your training program encompasses all required training to meet government and legal obligations, such as OSHA requirements, Department of Labor requirements, state-specific requirements, and others.
Determine Affected Employees
Once you’ve compiled the subjects on which you need to train, you need to figure out which employees need which training. Use other company resources to help you determine who needs training.
- Company policy. For certain areas or subjects, your organization’s policies may spell out who is to be trained, in what, and with what frequency. Use these instructions to start your list of affected employees.
- Employee records. Review for safety violations or accidents to determine if employees may need more safety training; for harassment or discrimination complaints, which may indicate the need for more sensitivity training; or for performance reviews that indicate employees may need—or may have requested—more skills training.
- Performance data. Review this information to identify weaknesses in performance that may require refresher training in how to use equipment and machines more efficiently or in how to use more productive procedures.
- Observations. Keep your eyes and ears open in your workplace and you may identify employees who need training in specific areas.
- Informal discussions. Talk with employees, supervisors, and managers to get candid information about areas where people feel well-equipped to do their jobs and areas where they are uncomfortable.
- Focus groups. This method involves selecting a group of hand-picked employees and asking them designed questions regarding training. This activity gives you the opportunity to gather data from a few people in a short period of time. Focus groups are good for brainstorming, which can be a valuable source of information. Make sure the selected members are outspoken. A quiet participant may be hesitant to contribute.
- Interviews. Personal interviews can be very effective for discovering what training employees want, but it can also be very time-consuming. This method is best for specialized training that affects a small percentage of the workforce.
- Questionnaires. Compose a few questions specific to training you are planning. This method is effective for elective training or for new training areas in which you want to begin programs. Keep answers confidential so employees feel comfortable submitting their input.
- Skill tests or demonstrations. Give written tests or have employees perform demonstrations on certain equipment to determine who needs additional training.
Know How to Train Adult Learners
The Four Elements of Adult Learning
Motivation. To motivate adult learners, set a friendly or open tone to each session, create a feeling of concern, and set an appropriate level of difficulty.Other motivators for adult learners include:
- Personal achievement—including attaining higher job status or keeping up with or surpassing competitors
- Social well-being—including opportunities for community work
- External expectations—such as meeting the expectations of someone with formal authority
- Social relationships—including opportunities to make new friends that satisfy people’s desire for association
- Stimulation—that breaks the routine of work and provides contrast in employees’ lives
- Interest in learning—which gives employees knowledge for the sake of knowledge and satisfies curious minds
Reinforcement. Use both positive and negative reinforcement to be successful in training adult learners. Use positive reinforcement frequently, such as verbal praise, when teaching new skills in order to encourage progress and reward good results. Use negative reinforcement, such as negative comments on a performance review, to stop bad habits or performance.
Retention. Adults must retain what they’ve learned in order to realize benefits on both the personal and companywide levels. Achieve great retention rates by having trainees practice their newly acquired skills again and again until they are familiar and comfortable enough to ensure long-term success.
Transference. Adults want to bring what they learn in training directly to the workplace. Positive transference occurs when adults are able to apply learned skills to the workplace. Negative transference occurs when learners can’t—or don’t—apply skills to the workplace.
Know Your Audience
What is their background?
- How much training have they had on this topic?
- Why does management think they need more training?
- Do any trainees have any relationship with the trainer (acquaintances, jobs are related)?
- Do any trainees have high levels of responsibility or authority in the organization?
What are the demographics of the group?
- How many trainees are in the group?
- What is the average age?
- What is the ratio of men to women?
What is their educational level?
- What is their level of expertise?
- How much prior knowledge do they have about the session topic?
- Do some know more than others?
What is the overall attitude of the group?
- Is this voluntary or required training?
- Do they want to be here?
- What do they think of the subject matter?
- What do they think about the trainer?
- Are they a friendly group?
What are their expectations?
- Can the trainer meet their needs?
- Will the training benefit the participants?
- Will the training benefit the trainer? The organization?
- Could there be disadvantages as a result of the training session?
- Visual—These learners receive information best through seeing or reading it. Their brains process the information and retain it once they see it. These learners benefit from written instructions, diagrams, handouts, overheads, videos, and other visual information.
- Oral—Oral learners receive information best when they hear it. They respond best to speakers, audioconferences, discussion groups, Q&A sessions, and other oral information.
- Kinesthetic or tactile—These learners learn by touch and feel. They will benefit from show and tell where equipment is available to handle. They also respond well to demonstrations of new procedures and in having the chance to practice themselves.
Draw Up a Detailed Plan
- Set specific goals to meet each training need you’ve identified.Use quantifiable measurements for the accomplishments you want employees to achieve after training, such as an increased production quota or decreased injury rates.Use charts, graphs, and tables wherever possible to show management specific numbers and trends that your training program will achieve. For example, chart the increased productivity curve you plan to reach with your training or graph the injury rate you hope to achieve.Set realistic targets that are achievable, but not necessarily easy to achieve. Know your trainees well enough to know how to challenge them to reach for more effective performance. For example, look at the highest production peak employees have ever achieved, even if it was only one time, and set your target slightly above this point. Employees know they can achieve it because they already have. But they also know it’s challenging to accomplish.
- List everyone who needs to be trained in each topic area.Use these lists to help you customize your training to your audience.Prepare trainees by communicating before sessions with prequizzes, agendas, or requests for specific areas trainees want addressed in the training.
- Set up a training schedule.Make a master schedule of all the training you want to conduct for this month or this year.Within the master schedule, set specific dates for each session.Include makeup dates for trainees who cannot attend scheduled sessions.
Use a logical progression for multipart training; make sure sessions aren’t too far apart that trainees forget the first training or too close together that trainees suffer information overload. Also allow time for trainees who want more training in the first session to receive it before the next session is held.
- Choose the appropriate method(s) for each group of trainees in each topic area.Plan to use more than one training method for each topic to ensure that you reach all the types of learners in the session.Plan flexibility into your use of materials so that you are prepared for technical difficulties or other problems.List the materials and methods you plan to use in each session.